Near-Net-Shape Forging is a forging process that requires little or no extra machining to complete the component. This innovated development results in stronger components and the improvement of the performance of the engine. The process normally refers to two types of forging, cold and warm. Cold forging which generates an improved precision in the components requires stronger tools than warm forging.
The new advancements in Near-Net-Shape Forging work has made it possible for a wide variety of shapes and sizes of parts to be manufactured using various methods of forging. Sizes may vary from a few grams up to products that can weigh tons. A steering arm was replaced from a three piece welded unit to a one piece hot forged impression. A 450,000 pound generator shaft was created using an open die forging. Cold forging should be considered for parts that require geometric configurations as they are expensive and difficult to machine.
Near-Net-Shaped-Forging was designed to lower the cost associated with post machining operations. There is little waste connected with Near-Net-Shape-Forging work which results in a lower cost for materials. This type of forging was designed to overcome the necessity of machining away large percentages of a finished product resulting in unnecessary waste. There are several different types of metals used for forging depending on the part to be produced. Carbon and alloy steel are used for a wide range of products. Stainless steel is used when heat and corrosion resistance is needed, and aluminum is used when weight is an issue. Copper, brass and bronze are used when corrosion, high thermal and electrical conduction resistance is necessary.